To research market, wellness condition, and comorbidity differences between schizophrenia caregivers, and you can low-caregiver control, and between schizophrenia caregivers, and other caregivers, bivariate analyses had been performed.
Covariates indexed a lot more than (demographics and you may wellness properties) were registered towards an individual logistic regression design in order to predict providing worry to help you a grownup diligent that have schizophrenia versus. not getting care and attention. Another separate logistic regression design was go to predict delivering proper care in order to a grown-up patient which have schizophrenia versus. those providing maintain people which have an ailment other than schizophrenia. Schizophrenia caregivers was indeed coordinated so you can low-caregiver or other caregiver respondents with the inclination get making use of the “greedy” complimentary formula . A 1:2 complimentary proportion try then followed, for each and every schizophrenia caregiver is actually matched so you’re able to two non-caregiver control participants and you will independently in order to several caregivers of other conditions. Post-fits, differences when considering this type of teams was lso are-examined to ensure enough complimentary. Also, the coordinating was limited to ensure every fits was basically contained in this for each 5EU country.
Differences on HRQoL, and self-reported comorbidities were examined post-matching to quantify the burden of schizophrenia caregiving as a function of humanistic outcomes. Chi-square and ANOVA tests were used to test for statistical differences across i) those providing care for an adult relative with schizophrenia vs. those not providing care for an adult relative and ii) those providing care for an adult relative with schizophrenia vs. those providing care for an adult relative with a condition other than schizophrenia. Statistical significance was set at 2-tailed p <0.05.
A maximum of 398 schizophrenia caregivers, 158,989 low-caregivers control and you may 14,341 caregivers of almost every other standards were recognized thru 5EU NHWS across the 2010, 2011 and you may 2013. In this overall try from 173,728 adults across the 5EU, twenty-five.cuatro % were within the France, twenty-five.3 % in Germany, twenty-five.six % in the united kingdom, fourteen.0 % in Italy, and 9.six % during the The country of spain.
Schizophrenia caregivers versus. non-caregivers
The average age of schizophrenia caregivers was 45.3 years (SD = 15.8 years), 59.6 % were female, 52.5 % were currently employed, and 14.8 % reported an income of ? ˆ50,000/??40,000. Before matching, schizophrenia caregivers compared with non-caregivers, were more likely to be female (59.6 % vs. 51.4 %), less likely to be married/living with partner (57.4 % vs. 62.8 %), reported lower annual household income, were less likely to be employed (52.5 % vs. 57.7 %), more likely to currently smoke (36.7 % vs. 26.1 %), and reported greater comorbidity burden via the CCI, all p <0.05. No statistically significant differences on age, education level, BMI, alcohol use, and exercise behaviors were found between the two groups (see Table 1).
After propensity matching, schizophrenia caregivers were more likely to report experiencing sleep difficulties (42.7 % vs. 28.5 %), insomnia (32.4 % vs. 18.5 %), pain (39.7 % vs. 30.4 %), headaches (48.0 % vs. 42.0 %), heartburn (31.7 % vs. 22.9 %), anxiety (37.9 % vs. 23.6 %), and depression (29.4 % vs. 19.4 %) in the past 12 months than non-caregivers, all p <0.05. Based on the PHQ-9, schizophrenia caregivers reported greater severity of depressive symptoms than non-caregivers (p <0.001). Schizophrenia caregivers were also more likely to currently be using a prescription medication to treat depression (17.6 % vs. 8.2 %, p <0.001) than non-caregiver controls. Schizophrenia caregivers reported significantly lower MCS (40.3 vs. 45.9), PCS (46.8 vs. 49.0), and health utility (0.64 vs. 0.71), compared with non-caregivers (all p <0.001) (see Table 2).
Schizophrenia versus. other caregivers
Before propensity matching, schizophrenia caregivers compared with caregivers of other conditions, were younger (45.3 vs. 49.1 years), less likely to be married/living with a partner (57 Atheist dating review.4 % vs. 68.1 %), had lower annual household income, were more likely to currently smoke (36.7 % vs. 29.2 %), and reported greater comorbidity burden, all p <0.05. No statistically significant differences on gender, education level, employment status, BMI, alcohol use, and exercise behaviors were found between the two groups (see Table 3).